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Prayers/Salah in Islam

Posted on: 01 February 2013
  1. What is the second Principle of Islam?
  2. What do you understand by Prayer?
  3. What are the essential requisites for offering Prayer?
  4. What is Wudu?
  5. How do you perform the Wudu?
  6. What are the Obligatory Acts in the performance of Wudu?
  7. When does Ghusl (Bath) become obligatory?
  8. Can you name the obligatory conditions that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory Ghusl?
  9. What is the best way of performing an obligatory Ghusl?
  10. What should a person do in place of Wudu or Ghusl, if one is sick or access cannot be had to water?
  11. What are the essential requisites for the performance of a Tayammum?
  12. Do you know the acts or circumstances which make Wudu void?
  13. Do the same occurrences nullify tayammum also?
  14. What acts are forbidden without the performance of Wudu or Tayammum as the case may be?
  15. Does Wudu convey any inner meaning besides the cleanliness of the body?
  16. What is Azan?
    When and why is the Azan uttered?
  17. How is Azan recited?
  18. What is Iqamat and when is it uttered?
  19. What are the Obligatory (Fard) Factors in Prayer?
  20. Can you name some of the essentials (Wajib) of Prayer?
  21. Can you give a complete description of the performance of Prayer?
  22. What should a worshipper do if he or she unconsciously omits any of the essentials of prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the prescribed number of ruku's, sajdahs, rak'ats, etc.?
  23. What acts nullify a prayer?
  24. What does the term Qa'da-tul-Oala mean?
  25. What is Qa'datul-Akhira?
  26. How many kinds of Prayers are there?
  27. How may kinds of Fard prayers are there?
  28. Can you name the daily Obligatory Prayers?
  29. How many Rak'ats are compulsory in each of the five daily Obligatory Prayers?
  30. How many Rak'ats of Sunnatul-mu'akkadah should be offered along with each of the five daily Obligatory Prayers?
  31. When is Wajib-ul-witr prayer to be offered?
  32. Of how many Rak'ats does Wajib-ul-witr consist?
  33. How does it differ from other prayers?
  34. How is Salat-ul-Janazah offered?
  35. When should one curtail the Obligatory Prayers?
  36. At what time is one prohibited to offer Fard, Sunnat or Nafl prayers?
  37. Are there any other times when one should not offer the Nafl prayers?
  38. What is Salat-ul-Jumu'a?
  39. Who should be chosen to lead the Prayers?
  40. How is the Congregational Prayer offered?
  41. Should a person offering his prayers with a congregation repeat all the requisite recitations?
  42. What Prayers are offered in congregation in the daily Prayers?
  43. What should one do if one misses the congregation for any Prayer (Fard)?
  44. Of how may rak'ats do the 'Id-ul-Fitr and 'Id-ud-Adha Prayers consist?
  45. How are those two Rak'ats offered?
  46. What are the daily Sunnatu-ghair-il-mu'ak-kadah Prayers?
  47. What are the various special optional (Nafl) Prayers?
  48. In which Rak'ats of the prayers is the recitation of the Holy Quran made audibly?
  49. In what Rak'ats and what Prayers is the recitation of the Holy Quran made inaudible?
  50. What Prayers should be offered in congregation?
  51. Could you provide information related to ID Prayers ?
  52. How to prepare the Deceased and perform Janazah Prayer

1 What is the second Principle of Islam?

The second Principle of Islam is to offer the Obligatory Prayers five times a day.

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2 What do you understand by Prayer?

Prayer is the act of worshipping Allah according to the teaching of the Holy Prophet.

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3 What are the essential requisites for offering Prayer?

The essential requisites for offering Prayer are:

  1. The worshipper must be a Muslim
  2. The worshipper's clothes and body must be free from all impurities
  3. The place where the Prayer is to be offered should be pure and clean
  4. The part of the body between the navel and the knees of a male worshipper must be fully covered, and the whole body excepting the hands and face of a female worshipper.
  5. The worshipper must face the Ka'ba in the Great Mosque at Mecca and the direction of Ka'ba outside Mecca.
  6. The worshipper must form the Niyyat (i.e., intention) in his or her mind of the particular Prayer, Fard (Obligatory) or Sunnat or Nafl (Optional), he or she is about to offer.
  7. The worshipper must observe the times and rules prescribed for the respective Prayers.
  8. The worshipper must have performed the Wudu (i.e., ablution).
  9. The worshipper must have performed Ghusl (i.e., the washing of the whole body), if he or she was in a state of grave impurity.

Note: In order to keep the body clean from dirt and all minor impurities and to be even ready for prayer, a Muslim must wash the private parts of his or her body with water whenever any impure matter issues from the body.

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Wudu (Ablution)

4 What is Wudu?

Wudu is the act of washing those parts of the body which are generally exposed.

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5 How do you perform the Wudu?

I perform the Wudu in the following manner:

  1. I make myself sure that the water with which I am going to perform Wudu is pure, clean and fresh (not used before) and its color, taste and smell are unchanged
  2. I form and have the full intention of performing the Wudu for offering prayer
  3. I recite "Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim" i.e., in the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
  4. I then wash my hands upto the wrists three times, passing the in between each other
  5. I cleanse my mouth with brush or finger, and gargle with water three times
  6. Then I rinse the nostrils thrice with water
  7. I wash the face from the forehead to the chin bone and from ear to ear three times
  8. I then wash the right hand arm followed by the left upto the elbows three times.
  9. I then brush up the whole head with wet hands, pass the wet tips of the index finger inside and the wet tips of the thumb outside the ears, and pass over the other surface of the hands over the nape and the sides of the neck.
  10. I then wash the feet upto the ankles, the right foot first and then the left, taking care to wash in between the toes, each three times.

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6 What are the Obligatory Acts in the performance of Wudu?

The obligatory Acts in the performance of Wudu are four:

  1. Washing the face
  2. Washing both the arms upto the elbows.
  3. Brushing over a quarter of the head with wet hands
  4. Washing both feet up to the ankles

Notes:

  1. If the water to be used for Wudu be stagnant, one should make sure that the cistern measures ten yards by ten yards by one foot and is full of water
  2. If a person wears impermeable foot-gear after the performance of the Wudu, it is not necessary to remove it for a fresh Wudu. One may just pass over it wet fingers as if one were tracing lines on it. Travelers can take advantage of this concession for three days and three nights, others for one day and one night.

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Ghusl (Bath)

7 When does Ghusl become obligatory?

Ghusl becomes obligatory after:

  1. Sexual intercourse
  2. Discharge or effusion of semen
  3. Completion of menses and confinement

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8 Can you name the obligatory conditions that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory Ghusl?

The obligatory condition that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory Ghusl are:

  1. To rinse the mouth thoroughly, so that all the parts are cleaned properly.
  2. To rinse the nose right upto the nasal bone
  3. To wash all parts of the body thoroughly, including the hair.

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9 What is the best way of performing an obligatory Ghusl?

The best way of performing in obligatory Ghusl is:

  1. The person should have the intention (Niyyat) to cleanse the body from grave impurity at the time of performing the bath
  2. He or she should wash the hands upto the wrists thrice
  3. Then the private parts must be washed thoroughly thrice
  4. Filth must be removed, if there be any, from any of the parts of the body.
  5. One should then perform an ablution
  6. One should lastly wash thrice all the parts of the body, including the hair thoroughly.

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Tayammum

10 What should a person do in place of Wudu or Ghusl, if one is sick or access cannot be had to water?

When a person is sick or access cannot be had to water, one may perform what is called Tayammum in place of Wudu or Ghusl.

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11 What are the essential requisites for the performance of a Tayammum?

The essential requisites for the performance of a Tayammum are:

  1. To have the intention in mind to perform the Tayammum for the removal of impurities
  2. To strike pure earth lightly with the palms of both the hands
  3. To pass the palms of the hands over the face once
  4. To again strike lightly pure earth with the palms of both hands and rub alternately from the tips of the fingers to the elbows, the forearms and the hands.

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12 Do you know the acts or circumstances which make Wudu void?

Yes, the acts or circumstances which make the Wudu void are:

  1. Answering the call of nature; discharge of semen or issue of worm or sandy stone or any impure matter from the front or the hind private parts
  2. The passage of wind from the hind private part
  3. The act of vomiting a mouthful of matter
  4. Emission of blood, puss or yellow matter from a wound, boil, pimple, etc., to such an extent that is passes the limits of the mouth of the wound, etc.
  5. Loss of consciousness through sleep, drowsiness, etc.
  6. Temporary insanity, fainting fit, hysteria or intoxication.
  7. Audible laughter during prayer

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13 Do the same occurrences nullify tayammum also?

Yes; the same occurrences nullify Tayammum also, but in addition Tayammum is nullified as soon as the cause for performing it is removed i.e., if the sick person removers, or, if recourse has been taken to it for lack of water, and access to water becomes possible.

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14 What acts are forbidden without the performance of Wudu or Tayammum as the case may be?

The following three acts are forbidden without the performance of Wudu or Tayammum as the case may be:

  1. Prayer
  2. Walking round the Holy Ka'ba in Mecca
  3. Carrying or touching the Holy Quran

Note: Children who have not attained the age of discretion, i.e., about seven years, can carry the Holy Quran for the purpose of studying.

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15 Does Wudu convey any inner meaning besides the cleanliness of the body?

Yes, the primary object is cleanliness or purity, but spiritual cleanliness and purity, i.e., freedom from sins which is the main object of religion. It is preferable, therefore, to recite the following after Wudu:
Allahummaj'alni minattawwabeena waj'alni minal mutatahahhireen.
'O Allah! make me from among those who repent for their sins and from among those who keep themselves pure.

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Azan

16 What is Azan?

Azan is the first call to Prayer

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17 When and why is the Azan uttered?

The Azan is uttered in a loud voice to announce to the faithful that it is time for the Obligatory Prayer and to invite them to offer the same.

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18 How is Azan recited?

Azan is recited in a loud voice by the Muezzin (the crier) facing the direction of Ka'ba in the following words which are said in the order mentioned:

(1) Allahu Akbar
i.e. "Allah is Most Great" (four times).

(2) Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allah
i.e., "I bear witness that there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allah" (twice)

(3) Ash-hadu anna Muhammad-ar-rasoolullah
i.e., "I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah" (twice)

(4) Hayya 'alas-Salah
i.e., "Come to Prayer" (turning the face alone to the right and saying it twice)

(5) Hayya 'alal-falah
i.e., "come to Success" (turning the face alone to the left and saying it twice)

(6) Allahu Akbar
i.e., " Allah is Most Great" (twice)

(7) La illaha ill-Allah,
i.e., "There is no deity but Allah (once)

Note:- The following phrase is added after item (5) in the Azan of the early morning prayer:
As-salatu khairum minannaum
i.e., "Prayer is better than sleep" (to be said twice)

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IQAMAT

19 What is Iqamat and when is it uttered?

Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before the beginning of the Obligatory (fard) Prayer. It is similar to Azan but with the addition of the sentence, "Qad qama-tis-Salah"
i.e., "Prayer has indeed begun", to be uttered twice after item (5) above.

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20 What are the Obligatory (Fard) Factors in Prayer?

The Obligatory Factors in a Prayer are seven in number:

  1. To say takbir-i-tahrimah
  2. Qiyam, i.e., standing erect and placing the right hand upon left below the navel
  3. To recite some verses from the Holy Quran
  4. Ruku', i.e., bowing down in such a way as to grasp the knees with the hands keeping the back in a straight line so as to for a right angle with the legs
  5. Sajdah, i.e., prostrating in such a way that both the palms of the hands, the forehead, the nasal bone, the knees and the toes of both feet touch the ground; there must be sufficient space between the arms and the chest and the legs and the belly so that they do not touch each other but remain separate.
  6. Qa'dah i.e., sitting down in a reverential posture, keeping the right foot erect on the toes and the left one in a reclining position under the rumps
  7. To signify the completion of prayer by work or action.

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21 Can you name some of the essentials (Wajib) of Prayer?

The observance of the following eight points are very essential in any prayer

  1. To say takbir-i-tahrima, "Allahu-Akbar"
  2. To recite the opening chapter of the Holy Quran (the Fatihah)
  3. To recite any of the other chapters or at least three consecutive verses of the Holy Quran
  4. The recitation of the opening chapter must precede the recitation of any other chapter or three consecutive verses of the Holy Quran
  5. To avoid a pause between the recitation of the opening chapter and any other chapter or three consecutive verses of the Holy Quran
  6. To assume all the postures correctly, i.e., undignified haste must not be practiced in changing the postures and reasonable pauses must be observed at each stage.

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Performance of Prayer

22 Can you give a complete description of the performance of Prayer?

Yes, A Prayer consists of either two, three or four Rak'ats, and a Rak'at is performed thus:-

  1. I stand erect, facing the direction of Ka'ba in Mecca, and after having the Niyyat, i.e., the intention in my mind of what prayer I am about to offer and preferably uttering it to myself;
  2. I raise both of my hands upto the ears and saying "Allahu Akbar", bring them down and place the right hand upon the left below the navel.
  3. I then recite:-
    (a)
Subhanak-Alla-humma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka
  1. i.e., 'All Glory be to Thee, O Allah! and Praise be to Thee; blessed is Thy Name and exalted Thy Majesty; and there is none worthy of worship besides Three.'

    (b)

      A'oozu billahi minash-shaitanir-rajeem

    i.e., 'I betake myself to Allah for refuge from the accursed Satan.'

    (c)

      Bismillah-i-Rah-man-ir-Raheem.

    i.e., (I begin) in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.'

    (d) I then recite the Opening Chapter of the Holy Quran (the Fatiha),

      Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil-'aalameen ar-Rahman-ir-Rahim, Maliki yaum-id-deen, iyyakt na'-budu wa iyyaka nasta'een; ihdinas-sirat-al-mustaqeema sirat-all-zeena an'amta 'alaihim ghairil maghdoobi 'alai-him wal-lad-dalleen. Ameen!

    i.e., 'All Praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful, Owner of the Day of Judgment. Thee alone we worship and Thee alone we ask for help. Show us the straight path, the path of those whom Thou hast favoured, not (the path of) those who earn Thine anger nor (of) those who go astray, Amen!'

    (e) I immediately follow up this by reciting some passage from the Holy Quran, which should not consist of less than three consecutive verses. For this purpose any one of the small chapters may be selected, as for instance, the chapter termed " The Unity":-

      Qul huw-allahu Ahad, Allahus-Samad, lam yalid wa lam yoolad, wa lam yakum lahoo kufuwan ahad.

    i.e., 'Say: He is Allah, the One-Allah, the eternally besought of all! He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him.'
    Note:- If a small chapter be recited, it is preferable to precede it by: " Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem,:

    (f) Then saying "Allahu Akbar", I bow down in Ruku' and say thrice:-

      Subhana Rabbiyal-Azeem

    i.e., 'How glorious is my Lord, the Great!'

    (g) I again assume the standing position, letting the hands remain on the sides and say:

      Sami' Allahu liman hamidah.
    Rabbana lakal-hamd.

    i.e., 'Allah has listened to him who has praised him; Our Lord praise be to Thee.'

    (h) Then saying "Allahu Akbar", I prostrate myself and perform the Sajdah, saying thrice:-

      Subhana Rabbiyal-a'la.

    i.e., 'All glory be to my Lord, the Most High.'

    (i) I then raise myself and, sitting for a while in a reverential posture, termed Jalsah, say once:-

      Allahummaghfirli war-hamni.

    i.e., 'O Allah! forgive me and have mercy upon me.'

    (j) I then perform the second Sajdah exactly in the same way as the first one.

    This finishes one Rak'at. I then say "Allahu Akbar", and standing erect once again, repeat all that I had done in the performance of the first Rak'at with the exception of items (a) and (b), which are meant to be recited in the first Rak'at only.

    (k) After the second Rak'at's second sajdah is over, I saying "Allahu Akbar, "sit down in the reverential posture called, Qa'da-tul-Oola (first sitting) or Qa'ada-tul-Akhira (last sitting) as the case may be, and recite Tashahhud alone in the former case :-

      At-tahiyyatu lillahi was-salwaytu wat-taiyyabatu assalamu 'alaika ayyu-hannabiyyu wa rahma-tullahi wa barrakatuhu assalamu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadillah-is-sali-heen, ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammad-dan 'abduhoo wa rasooluh.

    i.e., 'All reverence, all worship, all sancity are due to Allah. Peace be on you O Prophet! and Mercy of Allah and His Blessings, Peace be on us and all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness to the fact that none is deserving of worship except Allah and I bear witness to the fact that Muhammad is His Servant and Apostle.

    (l) If more than tow Rak'ats are to be performed, I, Saying Allahu Akbar", stand up again, and completing one or two Rak'ats, as the case may be, sit down in the reverential posture called "Qa'datul-Akhira, which is also obviously adopted if the prayer consists of two Rak'ats only. In the reverential posture, I recite in addition to tashahhud, the salawat,

      Allahumma salli 'ala sayyidina Muhammadin wa 'ala ali say-yidina Muhammadin kam sallaita 'ala say-yidina Ibrahima wa 'ala ali sayyidina Ibrahim innaka Ham-dun Majeed.
    Allahumma barik 'ala sayyidina Muhammadin wa 'ala ali say-yidina Muhammadin kam barakta 'ala say-ydiina Ibrahim wa 'ala ali sayyidina Ibrahima innaka Hami-dun Majeed.

    i.e., 'O Allah! Shower Thy blessings on our leader Muhammad and his descendants as Thous showeredest Thy blessings on our leader Abraham and his descendants; verily, Thou art the Praise-worthy, the Glorious.
    'O Allah! bless our leader Muhammad and his descendents as Thou blessedest our leader Abraham and his descendants; verily, Thou are the Praise-worthy, the Glorious'.

    (m) I then recite the following du'a:-

      Allahumma inni zalamtu nafsi zulman kaseeran wa la yagh-firuz-zunooba illa anta faghfirli maghfiratan min'indika war-hamni, innaka antal-Ghafoor-ur-Raheem.

    i.e., 'O Allah! I have been extremely unjust to myself and none grants forgiveness against sins but Thou; therefore forgive me Thou with the forgiveness that comes from Thee and have mercy upon me. Verily, Thou art the Forgiver, the Merciful.'

    (n) I then turn my face to the right and say the salam:-

      Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah

    i.e., 'Peace be upon you and mercy of Allah'. Then I turn my face to the left and repeat the same.
    Here the Prayer is completed.

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23 What should a worshipper do if he or she unconsciously omits any of the essentials of prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the prescribed number of ruku's, sajdahs, rak'ats, etc.?

If a worshipper omits any of the essentials of a prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the required number of Ruku's, Sjdahs, Rek'ats, etc., he or she should perform one salam after reciting Tashahud and, making two Sajdahs, should again recite Tashahhud, Salawat and Du'a and complete the prayer with the usual tow Salams. (This is called sajdatus-Sahw)

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24 What acts nullify a prayer?

The acts that nullify one's prayer are:

  1. Talking
  2. Doing any three acts in succession
  3. Emission of impure matter from the body or annulment of Wudu in any way.
  4. Drinking or eating during prayer
  5. Turning the chest away from the direction of Ka'ba.
  6. Committing breach of any of the obligatory factors of a prayer
  7. If the body between the navel and the knees becomes uncovered in the case of males, or any part of the body excepting the hands and the face in the case of females.

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25 What does the term Qa'da-tul-Oala mean?

The reverential sitting posture that one adopts after the completion of the two Rak'ats of a prayer, consisting of three or four, for reciting tashahhud is called Qa'datul-Oola

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26 What is Qa'datul-Akhira?

The final reverential sitting posture which a worshipper assumes after the completion of the prescribed number of Rak'ats of any particular prayer, for the recitation of tashahhud, salawat and du'a is called Qa'datul Akhira.

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27 How many kinds of Prayers are there?

There are five kinds of Prayers:

  1. Fard al'-ain, i.e., the compulsory prayer that must not be missed on any account whatsoever. This obligatory prayer must be offered at any cost for if one fails to do so he or she will be liable to severe punishment. The nature of its importance is evident from the fact that if one denies its obligatory nature, he or she is classed as an unbeliever.
  2. Fard al-kifayah is the kind of prayer which should preferably be offered by all those present at the time, but one at least out of the group must offer it to free the others from responsibility; for example, if any one individual from amongst the inhabitants of a locality where Death of a Muslim has taken place or from those who join the funeral procession to the cemetery offer the 'Funeral Prayer', the obligation of all concerned is fulfilled.
  3. Wajib is a prayer which comes next in rank of Fard al'ain in accordance with the importance attached to if by the Holy Prophet.
  4. Sunnat-ul-mu'akkadah is the class of prayer which the Holy Prophet used to offer daily without fail and has ordered his followers to do so. One is liable to be questioned for neglecting to offer the same without some very cogent reasons.
  5. Sunnatu ghairil-mu'akkadah is the kind of prayer which the Prophet offered occasionally and desired his followers to do so.
  6. Nafl is a voluntary prayer and it is commended for the uplift of one's soul, and for the acquirement of spiritual benefits.

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28 How may kinds of Fard prayers are there?

There are only two kinds of Fard prayers:

  1. The daily obligatory Prayers.
  2. The special congregational Prayers on Fridays.

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29 Can you name the daily Obligatory Prayers?

Yes, the daily Obligatory Prayers are five in number:

  1. Salatul-Fajr, i.e., the early morning prayer which must be offered after dawn and before sunrise
  2. Salatus-Zuhr, i.e., the early afternoon prayer, the time time for which commences immediately after the sun begins to decline, and lasts till it is about midway on its course to setting.
  3. Salatul-Asr, i.e., the late afternoon prayer which must be offered sometime after the sun is bout midway on its course to setting, until a little before it actually begins to set.
  4. Salatul-Maghrib, i.e., the evening prayer which must be offered between the sunset and the disappearance of the light similar to the light at dawn, which follows when the red glow from the horizon in the West has vanished.
  5. Salatul-Isha, i.e., the night prayer which must be offered any time after the time for Salatul-Maghrib comes to an end, and before the break of dawn, but it should preferably be offered before midnight.

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30 How many Rak'ats are compulsory in each of the five daily Obligatory Prayers?

The number of Rak'ats compulsory in the five daily Obligatory Prayers are:

  1. Two in Salatul-Fajr (the early morning prayer)
  2. Four in Salatul-Zuhr (the afternoon prayer)
  3. Four in Salatul-Asr (the late afternoon prayer)
  4. Three in Salatul-Maghrib (the evening prayer)
  5. Four in Salatul-Isha (the night prayer)

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31 How many Rak'ats of Sunnatul-mu'akkadah should be offered along with each of the five daily Obligatory Prayers?

The number of Rak'ats is as follows:-

  1. Two before the Fard of Salatul-Fajr.
  2. four before and two after the Fard of Salauz-Zuhr
  3. None before or after the Fard of Salatul-Asr
  4. two after the Fard of Salatul-Maghrib
  5. Two after the Fard of Salatul-Isha

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32 When is Wajib-ul-witr prayer to be offered?

It should be offered after the Fard and and sunnatul-ku'akkadah of Salatul-Isha

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33 Of how many Rak'ats does Wajib-ul-witr consist?

It consists of three Rak'ats

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34 How does it differ from other prayers?

It differs from other prayers in this respect, that, in the third rak'at, before one bows down for the performance of Ruku, one should say "Allahu Akbar", raising the hands unto the ears and after placing them in the former position below the navel, one should recite the following du'a called du'aal-Qanoot:-

Allahumma inna nasta'eenuka wa nastaghfiruka wa nu'minu bika wa natawakkalu 'alaika wa nusni 'alaikal khair wa nashkuruka wa la nakfuruka wa nakhla'u wa natruku manyyafjuruka : Allahumma iyyaka na'bud. we laka nusalli wa nasjudu wa ilaika nas'aa wa nahfidu wa narggo rahmataka, wa nakhsha 'azabaka inna 'azabaka bilkuffari mulhiq.

i.e., 'O Allah! we beseech Thy help and ask Thy pardon and believe in Thee and trust in thee, and we praise Thee in the best manner and we thank Thee and we are not ungrateful to Thee, and we cast off and forsake one who disobeys Thee. O Allah! Thee alone do we serve and to Thee do we pray and make obeisance and to Thee do we flee and we are quick (in doing so), and we hope for Thy mercy and fear thy chastisement; surely thy chastisement overtakes the unbelievers.'

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Salat-ul-Janazah (Funeral Prayers)

35 How is Salat-ul-Janazah offered?

Salat-ul-Janazah is offered in the congregation as follows:

  1. The body of the deceased is placed in a coffin and with its face turned towards the ka'ba and the Imam standing by its side with the intention (Niyyat) of offering Salat-ul-Janazah for the particular dead person raises both hands up to the ears and says "Allahu Akbar", the congregation following his lead. The usual Niyyat for the Salat-ul-Janazah is:
      Navaitu an uwaddiya lillahi ta'ala araba'a takbiraati salatiljana-zati, ath-thanaau lillahi ta'ala was-salatu lirra-sooli wad-du'au lihazal mayyiti (lihazihil mayyiti, in case the deceased is a female), iqtadaitu bihaz al-Imami mutawajjihan ila jihatil Ka'ba-tish-Sharifah
  1. i.e., I intend to offer for Allah, the Sublime, four takbirs of Funeral Prayer, Praise for Allah, the Sublime, and Blessings (of Allah) for the Apostle and prayer for this deceased person; I adopt the lead of this Imam, with my face turned in the direction of the honored Ka'ba

  2. The Imam and the congregation then join their hands below the navel and recite:-
      Subhanak - Allahumma wa bihamddika wa taba-rakasmuk wa ta'ala jadduka wa jalla tha-nu'uka wa la ilaha ghairuka.
  3. The Imam and the congregation then say "Allahu Akbar", (this time without raising their hands), and recite the salawat.
  4. The Imam and the congregation then say Allahu Akbar", as in (2) and recite:-
    (a) If the deceased hand attained the age of puberty, then the following Du'a:-
      Allahummaghfir li hay-yina wa mayyatina wa shahidina wa gha'ibina wa saghirina wa kabi-rina wa zakarina wa unthana; Allahumma man ahyaitahu minna fa-ahyihee 'alal Islam, wa man tawaffaitahu minna fatawaffahu 'alal Iman.

    i.e., 'O Allah! Pardon our living and our dead, the present and the absent, the young and the old, the males and the females. O Allah! (he or she) to whom Thou accordest life, cause him to live in the observation of Islam, and he to whom Thou givest death, cause him to die in the state of Iman.'
    (b) If the deceased is a minor and a boy, then the following Du'a:-

      Allahummaj'alhu lana fartan waj'alhu lana ajran wa zakhran waj-'alhu lana shafi'an wa mushaffa'an

    i.e., 'O Allah! make him our fore-runner, and make him, for us, a reward and treasure, and make him, for us, a pleader, and accept his pleading.

    (c) If the deceased is a minor and a girl, then the following Du'a:-

      Allahummaj'alha lana fartan waj'alha lana ajran wa zukhran waj-'alha lana shafi'atan wa mushaffa'atan.

    i.e., 'O Allah! make her our fore-runner, and make her, for us, a reward and a treasure, and make her, for us, a pleader and accept her pleading.'

  5. Then the Imam and the congregation say "Allahu Akbar', as in (3). then turning their faces alone to the right they say: "Assallamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah". then they turn their faces (alone) to the left and say: "Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah'.

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36 When should one curtail the Obligatory Prayers?

When one is travelling with the intention of proceeding forty eight miles or over from the home, one should offer two Rak'ats of Fard Prayers for those which comprise four, and continue to do the same after one's arrival at a destination if one does not intent to prolong his or her stay there for fifteen days or more.

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37 At what time is one prohibited to offer Fard, Sunnat or Nafl prayers?

One is forbidden to offer either Fard, Sunnat or Nafl prayers at:

  1. The time when the Sun is rising
  2. The time when the Sun is at its zenith
  3. the time when the Sun is setting

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38 Are there any other times when one should not offer the Nafl prayers?

Yes. One should not offer Nafl prayers during:-

  1. The interval between the offering of the Fard of Salatul-Fajr and the rising of the sun.
  2. After the Iqamat is called for any congregational prayer at a mosque.
  3. The time between the offering of the Fard of Salatul-'Asr and the setting of the sun.
  4. The time between the setting of the sun and the offering of the Fard of Maghrib prayers
  5. The time between the Imam's getting up from his place for delivering the Khutba, i.e., the sermon, and the completion of Friday congregational Prayers.
  6. At the time of any Khutba, e.g., Friday, 'Id, etc.
  7. The time between the fajr prayer and the 'Id prayers.
  8. After the 'Id prayers at the premises where the same have been offered
  9. At the time of Hajj in Arafat after the Zuhr and Asr prayers are offered together
  10. The time between the Maghrib and Isha prayers at Muzadalifa
  11. When there is very little time left for offering the Fards of any of the daily prayers
  12. When one feels the need to answer a call of nature

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Salat-ul-Jumu'a

39 What is Salat-ul-Jumu'a?

It is a congregational Prayer only and cannot be offered alone. Consequently, an Imam (i.e., Leader) is necessary to lead the prayers. The Imam first of all delivers a Khutba in tow parts consisting of praise of Allah and Prayers of Blessings for the Holy Prophet, and some admonition to the congregation. He then prays to Allah for the welfare of all Muslims. After that he leads two rak'ats of the Fard of Jumu'a and all other follow him, as usual in congregational prayers.

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40 Who should be chosen to lead the Prayers?

The one most conversant with Islamic theology among those present should be requested to lead the Prayers

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41 How is the Congregational Prayer offered?

The Imam stands in front of the congregation facing the direction of Ka'ba, and all the other worshippers stand in lines behind him and follow his lead, i.e., they stand when he stands, perform Ruku' when he does it, and so on.

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42 Should a person offering his prayers with a congregation repeat all the requisite recitations?

Yes, One should recite everything excepting the Opening chapter of the Holy Quran followed by some some other passage from it which the Imam recites on behalf of the congregation.

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43 What Prayers are offered in congregation in the daily Prayers?

Only the Fard of each Prayer is offered in a congregation, and not Sunnat or Nafl

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44 What should one do if one misses the congregation for any Prayer (Fard)?

If one misses congregation for any Prayer, one should offer it alone or, if possible, join or arrange to have another congregation; but one misses the congregation of Salat-ul-Jumu'a one should offer by oneself the usual fard of Sal;at-uz-Zuhr.

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45 Of how may rak'ats do the 'Id-ul-Fitr and 'Id-ud-Adha Prayers consist?

Each one of them consist of two Rak'ats

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46 How are those two Rak'ats offered?

They are offered in the congregation thus:-

  1. The Imam as usual stands in front of the congregation, and facing the direction of the Ka'ba and having the intention of offering the particular prayers says aloud: "Allahu Akbar", and the congregation follows his lead.
  2. Then the Imam and the congregation place their hands below the navel as usual, and at short intervals perform three "takbeers", i.e., say "Allahu Akbar", raising the hands to the ears and letting them remain at the sides at the end of each "takbeer". After the end of third "takbeer", the hands are placed below the navel, and the Imam recites Subhanak Allahumma, etc.," inaudibly, followed by the audible recitation of Suratul Fatiha (the Opening chapter) and some other chapter or passage form the Holy Quran and finishes the Rak'at in the prescribed manner.
  3. In the second Rak'at, the order is reversed, for the recitation of Qur'anic passages are made first and then the Imam and the congregation perform the three "takbeers" as in the first one., and then saying "Allahu Akbar" for the fourth time, bow down in the Ruku' and complete the prayer as usual.
  4. After the prayer is over, the Imam mounts the pulpit and delivers two Khutbas or sermons. At the time of 'Id-ul-Fitr, the Imam explains the commandements regarding the payment or distribution of Sadaqat-ul-fitr an on the occasion of 'Id-ud-Adha, the commandments are about the sacrifice of animals.

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47 What are the daily Sunnatu-ghair-il-mu'ak-kadah Prayers?

The are :-

  1. Four Rak'ats before the Fard of Salatul-'Asr.
  2. Four Rak'ats before the Fard of Saltul-'Isha'.

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Nafl Prayers

48 What are the various special optional (Nafl) Prayers?

They are :-

  1. Salat-ul-Ishraq, which consists of two or four Rak'ats and may be offered after sunrise
  2. Salat-ud-Duha, which consists of two to eight Rak'ats and may be offered any time after the Salat-ul-Ishraq till the sun's declination.
  3. Salat-ul-Tahiyya-tul-Masjid, which consists of two Rak'ats and my be offered on entering a mosque
  4. Salat-ul-tahajjud, which consists of four to twelve Rak'ats and may be offered after mid-night preferably after having slept for some time. This prayer has been specially recommended in the Holy Quran for attaining spiritual progress
  5. Salatul-Kusufain, which consists of two Rak'ats and may be offered during the eclipse of the Sun or the Moon.
  6. Salat-ut-Taravih, which consists of twenty Rak'ats and is offered in tan Salams of two Rak'ats each, each night in the month of Ramadan only after the Obligatory 'Isha Prayers. It is very commendable to complete the whole Quran by reciting consecutive portions of it in each of its Rak'ats after the recitation of Surat-ul-Fatiha, and thus finish the whole Quran by the end of Ramadan.

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49 In which Rak'ats of the prayers is the recitation of the Holy Quran made audibly?

The recitation of Surat-ul-Fatiah and some other chapter or passage of the Holy Quran is made audibly in:

  1. The two Rak'ats of the Fard of Salatud-Fajr.
  2. The first two Rak'ats of the Fard of Salatul-Maghrib.
  3. The First two Rak'ats of the Fard of Salaul-'Isha'.
  4. The two Rak'ats of Salatul-Jumu'a.
  5. The two Rak'ats of both 'Id Prayers.
  6. In all the twenty Rak'ats of the optional Taraveeh Prayers in the month of Ramadan.
  7. In the three Rak'ats of the Wajib-ul-Witr Prayers in the month of Ramadan only.

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50 In what Rak'ats and what Prayers is the recitation of the Holy Quran made inaudible?

In all the Rak'ats of the Fard of Salatuz-Zuhr and Salat 'Asr and the last one and two Rak'ats respectively of the Saltul-Maghrib and the Salatul-Isha. The Fatiha alone is recited in these Rak'ats as also in the last two Rak'ats of Saltuz-Zuhr and Salatul-Asr.

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51 What Prayers should be offered in congregation?

The Prayers that should be offered in congregation are :-

  1. All Fards of the five Obligatory Prayers
  2. The Fard of Salatul-Jumu'a
  3. Both the 'Id Prayers
  4. Salatut-Taraveeh in the month of ramadan
  5. Wajib-ul-Witr in the month of Ramadan only
  6. Funeral Prayer
  7. Salatul-Kausuf

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52 Could you provide information related to ID Prayers ?

ID Prayers (Salatul 'Idain)

'Id prayer is a strongly recommended and important tradition in Islam and the Prophet (peace be upon him) never neglected it. He is reported to have ordered the men, women and children to proceed to the 'Id prayer ground.
Even menstruating women are encouraged to go to the 'Id ground but they should keep away from the actual place of prayer.

SELF PREPARATION FOR 'ID PRAYER

It is highly recommended to have ablution (Islamically correct bath or ghusl) and to use the most beautiful dresses and the best perfumes one can obtain. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to do so. There is also a tradition that one should eat something, preferably dates, before going tot he 'Id ul Fitr prayer and to eat nothing before the 'Id ul Adha prayer.

Time:

The time for 'Id ul Adha is when the sun has risen two meters (7ft.) above the horizon and the time for 'Id ul Fitr is while the sun has risen to three meters (10 ft.) above the horizon. 'Id prayers cannot be said after midday.

Place:

It is better to hold 'Id prayers in an open place for ground if there is no obstacle like rain or bad weather. The Prophet never performed 'Id prayers in the mosque except one due to rain.

No Adhan, No Iqamah:

There is neither Adhan nor Iqama for 'Id prayers.

Performance of 'Id Prayers:

'Id prayer consists of two Rak'a with twelve takbeers, (Allahu Akbar), seven in the first rak'a and five in the second. In the first Rak'a just after takbeeratul Iharm, say seven takbeeras lifting your hands with each takbeera and after finishing seven Takbeeras go on with prayer in the usual way (reading al Fatiha and surah aloud). In the beginning of the second Rak'a say five Takbeeras in the usual way. There is no special Dhikr between takbeeras - you can say Subhanalla Walhamdu Lillahi wa Laa Ilaha Illallahu Wallahu Akbar.

Khutba:

After performing the Salat, the Imam must deliver khutba just like jum'a khutba. But Imam Nawwai and some other scholars say that the khutba of 'Id is not broken up into two parts and a period of sitting in between

Returning:

On returning from the salat, it is recommended to take a different route than that which was taken to the prayer.

Takbir:

It is strongly recommended to repeat in a loud voice (a)Allahu akbar, on the way to the salat and while waiting for the imam; (b) to repeat Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illa allahu, wa Allahu Akbar, wa lillahi-I-hamd after every congregational prayer starting from the fajr, (dawn prayer) on the day of Arafat (ninth day of Zhul Hijja), to the 'asr (afternoon prayer) on the last of the Days of Tashriq (the thirteenth day of Dhul Hijja). For the Pilgrims, the starting time is the dhur, (noon prayer) of the Day of Nahr (tenth of Dhul Hijja).
It is clear that this takbir applies only to 'Id ul Adha while the first applies to both.

Zakatul Fitr:

Zakatul Fitr is obligatory for every Muslim man and woman, adult and child. It should be distributed before the prayer of 'Id. Every person, having savings beyond his own and his family's feeding for one day and night should give for himself and everyone he looks after. Zakatul Fitr is meant to purify the fasting (saum) and to keep everybody in society happy and pleasant - rich and poor equally - so that nobody should go hungry on that day. Thus, it presents a magnificent example of comprehensive social justice in Islam.

Sacrificial Slaughter (udhhiya)

Udhhiya or sacrificial slaughter on 'Id ul Ahda is a strongly recommended tradition. It reflects the fact that the Muslim is being a committed, obedient servant of Allah is always ready to sacrifice anything, even his life, in Allah's way. Udhhiya is a imitation and remembrance of the great sacrifice that Prophet Ibrahim submitted to God by attempting to sacrifice his own son, Isma'il, to fulfil the command of Allah Almighty.
The following are essentials of sacrifice:

  1. Allah's name (Bismillahi Allahu Akbar) must be said while slaughtering.
  2. Udhiya cannot be slaughtered before 'Id prayer. It should be done immediately after prayers or in the three days after 'Id: Dhul hajj 11, 12, 13.
  3. Udhhiya can be a goat, sheep, cow, bull, buffalo, or camel of either sex. Pregnant female animals should not be slaughtered. Seven persons can share in the last named four animals.
  4. The meat of the slaughtered animal should be divided into three parts. It is essential to give one third as gift to the poor and the needy. One third should be given to friends and relatives and one third kept to oneself.
  5. For one who intends to make the sacrificial slaughter it is sunnah not to share his hair or clip his nails after Dhul Hajj moon is sighted, until the time of slaughter. (Sahih Muslim)

Enjoyment in 'Id Days:

Islam urges us to enjoy life with every lawful means of enjoyment. Especially on 'Id days the Islamic spirit of enjoyment and brotherhood becomes manifest. Thus Islam nourishes the spiritual aspirations of mankind along with is physical abilities.
On these days everyone should be happy with his wife, his children, his Muslim brothers and sisters. Show mutual concern by exchanging gifts, smiling on the face of each other and expressing sincere love and affection to show the bondage of real brotherhood which stems from the belief in Allah. All Muslims should cherish brotherly feeling in their hearts towards each other, avoid talking behind each other's backs, avoid blaming one another and avoid causing disruption in the Muslim community. These are days when we should glorify the symbols of Allah and observe His signs to have piety in our hearts.

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53 How to prepare the Deceased and perform Janazah Prayers?

Preparation of the Deceased and Janazah Prayers

There are five main points for the preparation of a Muslim's body for burial; we present briefly the procedure involved in each of them:

(I) Body Washing or "Ghusl"
Washing the deceased's body is obligatory on Muslims; it is a Fard Kafaya, i.e., if some members take the responsibility of doing it the need is fulfilled, but if on one fulfills it then all Muslims will be accountable. Washing can be carried out in the following way:

  1. A man's body should be washed by men and a women's by women, but a child's body may be washed by either sex. A husband can wash his wife's body and vice-versa if the need arises.
  2. Only one person is needed for washing with someone to help him.
  3. It is better to choose for this the person who knows best how to perform ghusl.
  4. Place the body on a high place, e.g., a table or something similar.
  5. Remove the deceased's clothes (garments) leaving the private parts covered.
  6. Press the stomach gently and clean whatever comes out.
  7. For washing use a piece of cloth or your hands.
  8. Only clean water my be used; add some scented oils (non alcoholic) in the final wash. It is preferable to use warm water.
  9. Perform ablution (wudu) for the body, cleaning the teeth and nose from outside only.
  10. Wash three times, but if the body in not yet cleaned, continue washing five or seven times - it must be odd numbers.
    Turn the body on its left side and begin washing the right side. Then turn it on its right side to wash the left side. This is done in each wash. The first and second washes are done with water and soap, while the last one with water and scent.
  11. Hair should be unbraided, washed and combed, For women it may again be braided in three braids.
  12. Dry the body with clean cloth or towel.
  13. Add some perfume on the head, forehead, nose, hands, knees, eyes, armpits, and place perfumed cotton on the front and rear openings.

(II) Wrapping (Kafan)

  1. It must be a clean piece of cloth (preferably white) to cover the whole body.
  2. Add some perfume to the kafan (non-alcoholic).
  3. Do not use silk cloth for men.
  4. Use three pieces for men and five for women, [but each one must cover the whole body.]
  5. Tie the front and the rear with a piece of cloth (from the same kafan) in such a way that one can differentiate the head from the legs.

(III) Prayers (Salat)

  1. It is better that those praying divide themselves into three rows facing the qibla with the Imam in front.
  2. Put the body (or bodies) in front of the Imam.
  3. The Imam should stand by the middle of the body if the deceased is a man and by the shoulder if she is a woman.
  4. If there are more than one one body, then they should be but one in front of the other, those of the men nearest to the Imam and those of the women farthest from him.
  5. Having the appropriate neeyat in your heart, raise your hands in the usual manner and say, Allahu Akbar.
  6. Then fold and hold your hands on your breast in the usual manner, the right hand on the left.
  7. Read al Fatiha quietly.
  8. Say Allahu Akbar without raising the hands.
  9. Pray for the Prophet in the same way as you do in tashahud.
  10. Say Allahu Akbar (don't raise your hands).
  11. Make du'a for the deceased.
  12. Say Allahu Akbar (don't raise your hands).
  13. Make du'a for the Muslims.
  14. Say Assalaamu 'Alaikum, thus finishing the prayer.

It is clear from this description that all this prayer is done while one is standing - there is no ruku or sujud in it.

(IV) Funeral

  1. Procession: Mourners should walk in front or beside the bier. Those who are riding or driving should follow it.
  2. Silence is recommended.
  3. It is absolutely forbidden to accompany the body with music or crying.

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Today's Prayer Timetable

Tuesday 22 Oct 2019
23 Safar 1441
BeginsJama'ah
Fajr6:006:20
Zuhr12:401:15
Asr4:234:40
Magrib6:076:07
Isha7:207:40
Juma1:001:10

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